Kaala is one of the nine Kaaran`a Dravya, which are responsible for the origin (initiation) and maintenance of the Universe and hence for human life. Every event in the nature and in human life is deeply affected by Kaala. Ayurveda emphasizes on the manifold effects of Kaala on human life. Dominance of Kaala is revealed in all the events; such as birth, growth, formation of the seasons, management of diseases, collection of the drugs etc.
- Types of Kaala:
For the simplification of understanding Kaala is divided into two major types. (C.Vi.8/84):
- A)Aavasthika Kaalais concerned with diseased state (C.Vi.1/22) and with the milestones of the life such as childhood, teenage, old age etc. This type is also useful in treatment. (C.Chi.30/296)
- B)Nityaga Kaalais in relation with Maasa, Ritu, Samvatsara (C.Vi.8/125)
- Aushadha Sevana Kaala:
Aushadha Sevana Kaala is the time for the administration of the drug. It is the type of Aavasthika Kaala. It impacts on efficacy of the drug. Drug exhibits different action when administered in different Aushadha Sevana Kaala. According to predominance of Dosha, at the various stages of the disease, same drug can be administered in different Aushadha Kaala to achieve desired effect. e.g. Gud`a Hareetakee given at Abhakta Kaala is useful in Ars`ha and at Praagbhakta Kaala it is useful in Udara Roga.(C. Chi. 13/78)
The medicines given at improper time are not useful. Actual aim of Aushadha Sevana Kaala is to provide the fulfillment towards desired action of drug administration in patient in order to produce Dhaatu Saamya.
Medicines are of two types i.e. S`hodhana and S`hamana. Aushadha Sevana Kaala is for S`hamana type of treatment. S`hamana Chikitsaa is of Dravyaroopa andAdravyaroopa types. Aushadha Sevana Kaala is for Dravyaroopa Chikitsaa.
- Synonyms of Aushadha Sevana Kaala:
|Bhaishajya Kaala||Charaka Samhitaa|
|Aushadha Kaala||Sushruta Samhitaa|
|Aushadha Avacharan`a Kaala||Asht`aanga Sangraha|
|Bhaishajya Grahan`a Kaala||S`haarangdhara Samhitaa|
|Bheshaja Upakrama Kaala||Haarita Samhitaa|
- Types of Aushadha Sevana Kaala:
Aushadha Sevana Kaala varies in the names and numbers as per Samhitaa. Aushadha Sevana Kaala according to Charaka, Sus`hruta, Vaagbhat`a are summarized in the following Chart:
- Discussion of Aushadha Sevana Kaala in Samhitaa:
In all 11 Kaala are explained. Sus`hruta had explained 10. They are mainly related to food, like before food, after food or without food etc. So these are known asAavasthika Kaala. Nis`haa Kaala is only additional in Asht`aanga Sangraha, but it is also Aavasthika as Vaagbhat`a in Asht`aanga Hridaya explains it as Svapna Kaala. Charaka added two more Kaala other than above mentioned:
- Balavaana (Strong) patient should take the medicine in the morning, before consuming any food.
- Durbala (Weak) patient should consume the medicine with Pathyaahaara
S`haarangdhara had adopted a different method for explanation.
- At sunrise, it includes Ananna.
- Adhobhakta -Divasabhojane
- Adhobhakta – Saayambhojane
- Includes Muhurmuhu and
- Includes Nis`haa Kaala.
- Aushadha Sevana Kaala and Diseases:
|No.||Aushadah Sevana Kaala||Diseases|
Vyaadhi Bala and Rugn`a Bala is more
|2.||Pragbhakta||Apaana Pradoshaja Vyaadhi,|
Diseases of lower extremity,
|3.||Adhobhakta||After lunch– Vyaana Prakopajanya,|
After Dinner– Udaana Prakopajanya,
|5.||Samabhakta||Diseases spread all over body|
In Baala and Vridhha
Dosha spread upper and lower part of body
|8.||Muhurmuhu||S`hvaasa, Kaasa, Chardi, Trishn`aa, Visha|
- Description of Aushadha Sevana Kaala:
o Abhakta Kaala /Ananna Kaala:
In the morning, when the previous food is digested but the person is not hungry, drug gets easily distributed all over the body. As stomach is empty, drug remains unmixed with the food and its Veerya remains Anupahata i.e. unimpaired.Such drugs with Anupahata Veerya, cures the diseases quickly.
In Baala, Vriddha, Stree and emaciated person precautions should be taken while administering the drug.
Abhakta Kaala is in morning, which is Kapha dominating Kaala. The drugs having Tikta and Kat`u Rasa, Teekshn`a Gun`a, Ushn`a Veerya are well tolerated.
This Kaala is also known as Rasaayana Kaala. e.g. Braahma Rasaayana (C. Chi. 1-1/41-57) should be given at this Kaala in S`hvaasa.
o Praagbhakta / Annaadau:
In this Kaala, drug is administered just before food, when the person is hungry; the previously consumed food is completely digested. Drug given in this Kaala gets digested quickly. As it is covered by food, it is safe in children, old patients.
Drug given in this Kaala is followed by meal. Food covers the drug from upper side. This prevents Urdhva Gati of drug and enhances Adhara Gati. This helps drug to reach at site of Apaana.
Though Sthaulya is Kaphaja Naanaatmaja Vikaara(C. Su.21) the Vaata and the Agni are main factors in its pathogenesis and are restricted in the Kosht`ha. Drug administered in Praagbhakta Kaala pacifies the Vaata and Agni is controlled which leads to control Kshudhaa. So medicines for Krishikarn`a are given at this Kaala
Madhya means halfway through the meal. In this Kaala drug is administered in between the meal. As drug is given in between the food it is covered by the food. It affects Urdhva as well as Adhara Gati of Drug. Gati of Samaana is also towards Koshtha; which prevents Tiryak Gati of drug. Sushruta has explained it in term ofAvisaaribhaavaat. Avisaaribhaava is nature of dispersion. This term shows that the drug given in Samaana Kaala is limited to Kosht`astha organs due to itsAvisaaribhaava.
Site of Samaana is Grahan`ee. So the drugs given in this Kaala directly comes in contact with Agni and Samaana Vaata. Then it cures the diseases of Agni andSamaana Vaayu.
Paachaka Pitta is needed for digestion. Drugs; given in this Kaala act on Paachaka Pitta and increases digestion power.
o Adhobhakta / Bhojanaante / Bhuktaante :
This Kaala comes immediately after the food. Here drugs are administered after food. This prevents Adhara Gati of drug. Drug can spread with Urdhva and Tiryak Gati.
Vyaana Kaala is after lunch. In day time, Rasavaha Srotas and its Moolasthaana i.e. heart is in Vikasita Avasthaa. Hence drugs given in this Kaala acts on the heart as well as Vyaana Vaayu.
Udaana Kaala is after dinner. When the drugs given at night-after the dinner, act on Udaana Kaala and the diseases due to Udaana Prakopa.
Site of Kapha is also at upper part of the body. Hence the drugs given in this Kaala are useful in Kapha Roga. Drugs, which have Brihan`a Karma used forSthoolikaran`a, are used at this Kaala.
Administration of drugs with the food is called as Sabhakta. Those drugs, which dont have the pleasant taste and odor are mixed with the food and then administered. This Kaala is ideal in the children and the persons who refuse the medicine.
The drugs given in this Kaala mixed in Rasa Dhaatu and spreads all over the body in Urdhva, Adhara and Tiryak Gati, therefore useful in those diseases, which are spread all over the body.
Antaraabhakta means in between meals. When the process of the digestion of the lunch is completed, drug should be administrated; again after digestion of drug dinner should be consumed. This Kaala is useful in the disease of Vyaana.
Drug administered just before meal and immediately after meal. This enables Urdhva as well as Adhara Gati of Drug.
It means repeated or frequent administration. This Kaala is advised in S`hvaasa, Kaasa, Hikkaa, Trishn`aa, Chhardee, Visha and Praan`a related diseases. These are the diseases in which Dosha are in Sanchaya and Vegavasthaa is observed. Muhurmuhu drug administration pacifies Dosha and Vegavasthaa can be prevented.
Drugs administered with each Graasa (moracel) of meal. This Kaala is for the diseases of Hridya and Praan`a. Annagrahan`a is the function of Praan`a. Drug administered in this Kaala directly acts on Praan`a and cures diseases of Praan`a. Drugs for Agnideepana and Vaajeekaran`a are administered in this Kaala.
This drug is administered after every Graasa (moracel). It is useful in Praan`a, Vyaana and Udaana Prakopajanya Roga and Heart diseases.
The drug administered just before sleep. This Kaala is useful in the Urdhvajatrugata Roga. Adhara Gati of drug is prevented by food. Drug spreads in Urdhava Gati.Hence cures the diseases of eye, ear, nose, throat, head etc.
S`haarangadhara Samhitaa explains this Kaala for Lekhana, Brihan`a, Paachana and S`hamana.
In Yonivyaapad Chikitsaa, Charaka has explained the factors which are very important for Chikitsaa. These are Des`ha, Kaala, Pramaan`a etc. (C.Chi.30/296)
Aushadha Sevana Kaala are explained on the basis of:
Dosha: As Vaata is only Chala, Dosha Aushadha Sevana Kaala, are explained according to Vaata and its subtype and not of Pitta and Kapha.
Dosha Sanchaya: Dosha are dominant at different time / stage of day, night, digestion and age. This thing is considered while deciding Aushadha Sevana Kaalae.g. Abhakta Kaala for Kapha Roga
Vyaadhi Sthaana and Avayava: When Dosha are accumulated in lower parts of body; medicine should be given before meal.
Diseases: Medicines given in specific Kaala can cure the disease or reduce the Bala and frequency of the Roga effectively. e.g. Muhurmuhu for S`hvaasa Vega.
- Medicines administrated, have three Gati viz. Urdhva, Adhara and Tiryak.
- Food provides a covering media, which enhances the expected direction of medicines.
- In the process of digestion Rasa Dhaatu is formed which helps the drug to distribute in the body effectively.