Candana(Santalum Album)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Candana is an economic substance which is utilized for external application along with other herbs in Vedic Literature. Candana Mani Dharana (Crystal of Sandal wood) was considered to be Varcasya (Improves Complexion) & Ayusya (Provides Longevity)

As per Charaka it is best for removing the Foetid smell, burning sensation & external application (C.S.SU.25) Since it is Sheethala Veerya other varieties of Candana are traceable from Brhat trayees with various Synonyms. However Sweta & Rakta Candana are mainly described in these texts. But Nighantus such as Raja Nighantu, Dhanwantari Nighantu, Sodhala Nighantu, Nighantu, Bhavaprakasha Nighantu explained many varieties for Candana. Daha prashamana can be considered as its main action. It eliminates Daha by its Seetha Veerya. It reduces pitta so that it can be indicated in Rakthapitta & Rakthastambhaka by Seetha veerya also.

.

LITERARY REVIEW

 

In Vedic Literature:-

The earliest allusion to this tree found in Niruktha. Later it has been leffond to The Dharmasutras, Grayasutras, Stavasutras. Candana has been used in India from early period & occupies an important place in Hindu cerimonies, Religious & Social. The oil of the wood is a plae yellowish liquid which actas an Internal antisceptic & as an astringent to the mucous surface & is principally used in the treatment of Gonorrhoea.

In Charaka Samhitha:-

It is considered as best for removing the foetid smell & burning sensation & external application (C.S.SU.25) Other varieties of Candana is mentioned in  Brhat trayees with various Synonyms.

In Dhanwantari Nighantu:-

The Synonyms of Candana such Gardhasana, Maharha etc are mentioned. The properties distribution & Mukhya Aamayika prayoga is also explained.

In Kaiyadeva Nighantu

The synonyms such as Badrasriya, Malayasa etc are mentioned in Raja Nighantu, Sodala Nighantu, Bhavapraksha Nighantu different varieties of Candana are explained.

 

VARIETIES

 

Candana has 2 varieties mainly i.e Swetha & Raktha. Braht trayees also given these two varieties but there are many other varieties as per different Nighantu’s. Charaka quoted two varieties Swetha & Raktha itself. Vagbhatta quoted as ‘Sisiradvaya’. Later Arunadatta commensed these two as Swetha and Raktha.

According to Brhttrayees

  • Swetha Candana – Santalum album.Linn.
  • Rakta Candana – Pterocarpus sannalinus.Linn

According to Dhanwantari Nighantu

  • Candana – Santalum album.Linn
  • Rakta candana – Pterocarpus santalinum.Linn
  • Kucandana – Caesalpinia sappan.Roxb
  • Kaliyaka
  • Barbarika

 

According to Sodhala Nighantu

 

  • Gosirsa
  • Sripriya
  • Sambhrana
  • Kukubha
  • Barbarika
  • Rakta candana
  • Patanga
  • Hari candana

 

According to Kaiyadeva Nighantu

  • Candana – Santalum album.Linn
  • Rakta candana – Pterocarpus santalinus.Linn
  • Pita candana
  • Kairata candana
  • Barbara candana
  • Hari candana – Syzigium aromaticum.Linn

According to Bhava Prakasa

  • Candana – Santalum album.Linn
  • Rakta candana – Pterocarpus santalinum.Linn
  • Kaliyaka
  • Kucandana – Caesalpinia sappan.Roxb

According to Raja Nighantu

  • Candana – Santalum album.Linn
  • Rakta candana – Pterocarpus santalinum.Linn
  • Patanga – Caesalpinia sappan.Roxb
  • Kaliyaka
  • Barbarika
  • Haricandana – Syzigium aromaticum

According to Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Candana from Malaya Desa is best, Yavana Desa has moderate venity & that from Barbara, Pancala are considered as inferior quality.

 

 

SYNONYMS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

 

  • Gandhasara – its Sapwood possess excellent aroma.
  • Sheetahal – It provide pleasure because of its aroma & cooling.
  • Bhadrasri – Its application on body does not cause any Side effects.
  • Malayasa – It’s abundantly grown on Malaya Mountains.
  • Srikanda – It’s considered as part of beauty on beauty goddess.
  • Swethacandana – This sandalwood is white compared to red sandal
  • Chandradyathi – It gives pleasure like the moonlights
  • Gandharajam – Good fragrance.
  • Sarpavasam – Place where Snakes reside.
  • Tila pannakam – Leaves resembles leaves of sesam.
  • Sisira – Cold to touch.
  • Himam – Cold in touch.
  • Gandhasaram – its heartwood is aromatic in nature.
  • Mangalyam – It is used in auspicious ceremonies.
  • Sugantha – Sweet Scented.
  • Gandhadyam – Aromatic in nature
  • Gosiram – It is useful in auspicious matter.
  • Badra – It does not cause any side effects.
  • Nripaboga – Used even by Kings.
  • Malayodbasa – It is origined from Malaya region.
  • Pavana – It is cold to touch.
  • Malayam – Obtained from Malaya region.
  • Sirachandanam – It is white in colour.
  • Susrekam – It is useful in auspicious matter.
  • Maleyam – Obtained from Malaya.
  • Indukandam It is cold like moon.

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

English:Sandal tree, White Sandal tree

Hindi:Safed chandan, Santal

Kannada:Bavanna, Srigandadamara, Agarugandha

Malayalam: Chandana

Sanskrit:Chandana

Tamil:Chandana

Telugu:Chandanamu, Gandhapucekka, Srigandapumanu

Bengali: Chandan

Guajarati: Sukhada

Arabic: Sandale abaya

Persian: Sandale safed

French: Sandal blare

German: Weisser santelbaum Hind

Punjabi: Safed chandan

Urudu: Sandal safed

PARTS USED

 

  • Kanta Sara (Heart wood)
  • Thaila (Volatile Oil)

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

Sandalwood Oil

α – Santald, β – Sntene & Santalenes

Santenol, teresantlol, non – tricycloekosantalal, 1 – Santeone, Santanone, tetra santalic acid. α – & β Santantalic acids

Other parts

Santalic acid, n – ocacosanol, plamitone etc.

 

PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY

 

The precursors of Sandal oil do exists in the sapwood in combination with organic acid as easters which get easily hydrolysed to yield santatol, which constitute the main constituent of essential oil. The essential oil of sandal wood is distilled from small chips & raspings of the heartwood the tree. Roots are also used & they are considered to yield larger& finer quality oil. Oil is extremely viscid of a light yellow colour &possesses a characteristic roseate & penetrating ordour & bitterish slightly acid taste. Heartwood contains Volatile oil 2.5 – 6% dark resin & tannic acid. Oleum Santali obtained wood is Soluble in alcohol. Β – santalic, tetra sariatic, homricycloekasamalic, bycycloekasamalic & dihydro – β –santalic acids are detected in Sandal wood oil. Urs – 1z-en-3β-y1 palmitate & β sitosterol isolated from bark, epi – β- santalol, isolated & its structure determined, partial synthesis of betasantalol, beta santalol synthesized, isolation of trans – β – santalol & epi – sis – santalol, from Indian Sandalwood Oil.

 

PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATHA

 

Rasa: – Tiktha, madhura

Guna: -Laghu, Rooksha

Veerya: -Sheetha

Vipaka: – Katu.

Dosha Karma: -Kapha – pittahara, Pittagna by Tikta & Sita, Kaphagna by Laghu & Rooksha guna.

KARMA

 

Dh.NiKai.NiBha.PraRaja.Ni
Pitta ShamakaPittaharaHladanaVrishya
RakthaprasadanaVataharaSramaharaJwaragna
VrshyaHrdyaVishagnaKustagna
RakthapittagnaHladanamKaphagnaJwaragna
VishagnaVarnyaRakthapittagnaKantikaraka
KrimignaVishagna Kaphahara
 Kaphahara Kantugna

 

PRAYOGA

 

Dh.NiKai.NiBha.NiRa.NiCharakaSusrutha
RakthapittaTrshnaSramaChardiDahaPrameha
AntardahaDahaSosaJwaraTrshnaVisha
TrishnaRaktapittaVishaKrimiRakthapittaRudana
DahaKlamaTrshnaSanrupaPrameha 
KrimiSosaRakthapittaVakthrarujaGurganda 
 GranthiDahaBramshiChardi 
 KotaGranthiKotaVisphota 
 KharpanaKotaKharpanaSosha 
 SothaVyangaGranthiRajayakshma 
 VishaChardiGouravaVisarpa 
 MurnughuthaNetrarogaKheenaVrna 
  Jwara Jwara 
  Vrna Hrdroga 
  Visha Athisara 
  Masoorika Netraroga 
    Grahani 
    Raktharsas 

 

 

PHARMACO – THERAPEUTIC USES

 

  • Diarrhoea with blood

Intake of Chandana along with Sugar & honey & rice water as an Anupana one become free from Daha, Trshna, Prameha (C.S.CI 19/86, A.H.CI 9/92)

  • Intrinsic heamorrhage

Usira, Kaliyaka etc separately mixed with equal quantity of Chandana & Sugar & taken along with rice water (C.S CI 4/73).

  • Bleeding Piles

Kutaja Kwatha mixed with Shunti checks bleeding from Piles (C.S.CI 14/185).

  • Vomiting

Chandana taken along with Juice of Amlaka (C.S CI 20/32)

  • Grahani

Chandandya ghrtha(C.S CI 152/28)

  • Vataraktha

Chandanadi Kwatha in Pittaja jwara (S.S CI 5/8)

  • Usnavata

One should take Chandana mixed with Sugar along with rice water keeping on diet of boiled cooled milk & cereals (V.M 33/10)

  • Prameha

Sukrameha – Arjuna Kwatha & Chandana Kwatha (S.S CI 11/9), Manjishtameha – Kwatha of Manjishta & Chandana(S.S CI 11/9)

  • Poisoning

Application of Paste of Chandana on Cardiac region (S.S KA 1/36)

  • Hiccough

Juice of Masura palandu & Chandana mixed with breast milk as Snuff (CS CI 131)

  • Pradara

Chandana Kwatha (SS SU 2/14)

  • Pox

The Juice of Hilamochika mixed with paste of Chandana at the initial stages(B.P CI 60/35).

 

RECENT RESEARCH STUDIES

 

Australian Research on Santalum album began in 1983 in ORIA with Some 150 trees being planted. Plantings have steadily increased in recent years. Results of Preliminary plantings were sufficiently encouraging for the department of Conservation & hand management (CALM) to appoint a full time research officer in 1992 to work on the Sandal Wood pryaram Current research is examining the rate of growth of heartwood & Charges in Oil content overtime to determine the Optimum time to harvest the crop.

 

MATRA

 

  • Powder: 3 – 6g
  • Oil: 5 – 20drops

 

FORMULATIONS

 

NameIndicationsReference
Chandanadi LepaVisphota

Visha

Madatyaya

Cha.visyapachi 56-58

Su.Ka 1/36

Cha.chi 24

Chandanadi TailaSotha

Rajyakshma

Jwara

Cha.chi 12

Ch.chi 8

Cha chi 3

Chandanadi choornaNabhipakaBha.pra.chi 79
Chandana KashayaPrameha

Visarpa

Ushnavata

Pradara

Su chi 22

Cha chi 21

Vrnda madhava 33

Su sa 2

Chandana KalkaMasoorika

Chardi

Arshas

Bha.p chi 60

Cha.chi 20

Cha chi 14

Maha chandanadi tailamTathivardhanarinaBha.pra 72
Chandanadi GrithamSotha

Grahani

Cha chi 12

Cha chi 15

Sudarshana ChoornaJwara, Kamala, Pliha VridhiBhai.ra.Jwarathikara
ChandanavalehyaPittaja ChardiSharangadhara
PippalyasavaKshaya, Gulma, Grahani, PanduSharangadhara
ShadangapaneeyaJwaraBhavaprakasha

 

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