Chavya(Piper chaba.)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Chavak/Chavya is named as Piper chaba belongs to Piperaceae. Dalhana quoted Chavya as the root of Raja Pippali. The fruits of Piper Cheba are considered as Raja pippali or Chavika. While its root is considered as Chavya. Both are used in Ayurvedicmateriamedica for a long time.

Bhava Mishra quoted the properties of Chavika&ChavikaShoola separately. He quoted the properties of Chavya to those of PippaliMoola.

It is climbing Glaborous creeper with bright red fruiting spikes. The fruits of Chavaka are known as Gajapippali to differentiate from Pippali, it is named as GajapippaliGaja notes. Its big size similarly Masthaka, the Majja of Tall tree is also sold as GajaPippali. The rhizomes of Chavya are tasty & very nice digestive. The longest fruit in Pipperaceae family belongs to Piper betel. So the Fruits of Piper betel can be used as Gajapippali.

 

GANA OR VARGA

 

Charaka: Triptigna, Arshogna, Deepaneeya, Shoolaprashamana.

Susrutha: Pippalyadi

Vagbhatta: Pippalyadi

Kula: Pippali Kula

Bheda: No Bheda

 

 

SYNONYMS

 

  • Chavyaka
  • Chavyanja
  • Chavyaphala

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

  • English: Java long pepper root, wild pepper
  • Sanskrit: Chavya, chavila
  • Telugu:Chavakam
  • Kannada: Chavya
  • Malayalam: Chavyam, kattumulaku and kaatukurumulaku
  • Tamil: Chavyam, kattumilagu
  • Hindi: Chab
  • Bengali: Chair
  • Marathi: Kankala, chavak

 

PROPERTIES

 

Rasa: Katu

Guna:Laghu, ruksha

Virya: Ushna

Vipaka: Katu

Karma: Kaphavatasamaka, dipana, pachana, kasagna, swasagna,

Arshogna, krimigna

Prayoga: Agnimandya, udarasula, arsas, atisara

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

Stem: Piperine, sitosterol, piplatine( alkaloid )

New amides: Retrofractamide A,B,C&D, isolated from aerial parts

Mono terpens (thujene, pinene, camphene, salcenine, careen, myrcene, limonene, phellandrene), to 80% sesquiterpener, 20-30% oxygenated compounds.

Nontoxic, but irritant in high concentration, always dilute. Not compatible with homeopathic treatment, on extraction it gives colourless and pale orange coloured oils. It consist of apoite(43.3%), beta-caryophyllene(8.2%), pipertine(6.7%) and alpha heanalene(5.1%).

Oil contains gibbilimbods A-D(74.2%) with remaining major constituent having terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha pinene (6.5%).

Contains aromatic oils that are about 0.7%, piperine 4-5% and an alkaloid and pipalotine. Besides this it contains sesaman and piplasterol.

The root contains piperine 6.55-0.18% pippalotin (0.13-0.20%), piper ceaguminin, sterole and glycoside.

 

 

 

  • Prayojyanga: Moola
  • Matra: Choorna: 1-2gm

Yogas

  • Chavyadigritha
  • Kankayanavati
  • Panjakola
  • Shadushana
  • Pranadagutika

 

THERAPEUTICS

 

Udara:Chavya + ardraka given along with milk. (su.chi 14)

Atisara: Tender leaves of chavika, root of swetha and ksheerivriksha are mixed with oil and administered oraly.  (vai.ma)

These plants are shown tremendous potential for the development of new drug molecules, for various serious diseases. Piper chaba is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of various pathological conditions.

The tribal population uses the plant for cardiovascular activities, anti-inflammatory activity and as a spice. The extract of these plants are having anti-inflammatory activity and bio availability enhances immune modulatory effect, anti-asthmatic and helpto protective activity.

 

FOLKLORE USE

 

The Chinese used this to treat malaria, cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea and stomach complaints.

In Greece, it was used for fever and stomach problems. Pepper grains were sometimes swallowed whole as a general body tonic.

It is well known for musical treatments, poor circulation, arthritis and rheumatism, sprains, stiffness, also used in cold, flu, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, catarrh, and cough.

 

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