Goksura

Tribulus terrestris – Ayurvedic Herb

 

 

Goksura

 

 

The Names & synonyms of Gokshura are not found in the Vedic literature charaka identified it as the best drug for mutrakrichra [dysuria] and vata rogas [c.s. su. 25]. It is one of the herbs which is “mutrala” diuretic as well as “sothahara” anti inflammatory. The root is used in Dasamoolaa while the fruit is vrysya Bapalji is of the view that both roots & fruits are to be used along with whole plant in Asmari [urolithiosis]

 

Controversial studies

  

Quoting this great teacher late Amrtalal P. pattani, vaidya Bapalal stated that “Trikantaka” should posses three spines / spar but not six or four as the case with Tribulus or pedalium even considering the term gokshura the fruit is not like a hoof of cow.

Siva Das sen considered that bigger varity of Goksura is the best one while commenting on Chakradatta.

 

SYNONYMS

 

Gokshura            : Fruits are armed with spines.

Gokantaka         : Injure feel of grazing cattle, especially when they get   pricked to   hoots.

Trikantaka         : The fruits have 3 pairs of thrones.

Ikshugandika    :  The herb having the aroma of sugar care.

vanasrnkata       : Fruits resembling water chest nut.

chanadruma       :  The plant has leaves like those of Bengal gram plant.

Stalasrnkataka   : The fruits resembles water chestnut.

shadanka            : The plant posses the spine as sixth part, apart from usual 5 parts of the plant.

palamkasha       : The spines of fruit, gets prick  in the muscular portion of the cattles & thus causing injury to grazing cattle.

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

English               – Cow hage

Hindi                  – Gokhara

Malayalam        – Njerinjil

Kannada            – Negalu

Telugu                – Palleru

Sanskrit              – Goksurah

Tamil                  – Nerinci

 

PART USED

 

  • Fruits
  • Roots
  • Whole Plant

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

Fruits: contains traces of an alkaloid, a fixed oil, a small quantity of essential oil, resins & nitrates, chlorogenin, diosgenin, gitogenin, rutin, rhamnose .

Roots: Campesterol, B-sitosterol & stigmasterol, neotigogenin.

Aerial parts: Astragalin, dioscin, diosgenin, hecogenin, ruscogenin, trillin, furostanol, glycoside, spirosterol, saponin, terrestrosides A – F saponins C& G etc.

 

PROPERTIES / RASA PANCHAKA

 

Rasa                     :         Madhura

Guna                   :         Guru, Snigdha

Virya                   :         Sita

Vipaka                :         Madhura

Dosha karma     :         Vataplttasamaka

 

KARMA/ ACTIONS

 

Mutrala                     –        Asmarinasana

Vrsya                         –        Vajikarana

Vedanasthapana      –        Vatasamaka

Hrydya                      –        Raktapitta samaka

Sothahara

Kaphanisaraka

Garbhastapana

Amasaya balya

Anulomana

Grahi

Krimighna

Rasayana

 

PRAYOGA / INDICATIONS

 

Asmari   – Mutrkricha – Mutraghata

Bastisotha

Prameharoga

Dhatuksaya

Sukra vikara

Napunsakata – Klibya

Yoni vyapath

Garbhasrava – pata

Kasa

Svasa

Hrydroga

Raktapitta

Sotha

Agnimandhya

Dowrbalya

Sangrahni

Arsa

Udaka –kusta vikara vibandha

Nadi dowbalya

Vedanayukta vatavikara

Sularoga

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

  • Vajikarana – powder of Gokshura fruit is boiled with milk & consumed
  • Amavata – Decoction of sunit & Gokshura will be defanite use
  • Kesavardhana – Gokshura & the flowers of Tila are applied externally by making them into paste using honey (Sa. Sam)
  • The fresh leaves & stems, briskly agitated in cold water, speedly convert into a thick mucilage , namely of the consistence of the white of a raw egg. Inodorous & taste less.
  • An infusion of fresh leaves & stems is used as an esteemed remedy for treating gonohrrhoea & dysuria.
  • Juice used as aphthae as local application.
  • Kashaya used in irritation of the urinary organs.
  • Given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea in continence of uria & impotency.
  • Leaves used as a curry in spleenic enlargements.
  • Fruits of laghu Goksura useful as alternative , aphrodasic antihmelmentic, anti-arthritic , cooling, demulcent , tonic , constipative used in kidney diseases, painful miturition & urinary discharge.

 

RESEARCH WORKS

  1. Anti caner activity.

One of the three new steroidal saponins from the fruits of T.terrestris exhibited cytotoxic activity against a human malignant melanoma cell line (Behdir & khan 2000)

  1. Nephroprotective Activity:

Nephroprotective activity was evaluated in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity ( 50 mg/kg/ day s.c) in male abinorats, NR- AG – I, NR- AG] were tested given for 12 days. Vrea clearance & microscopically examinations of kidney were performed after treatment . Gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant reduction in urea clearance & was prevented by both formulations.

  1. Lithotriptic property & Aphrodiastic property:

An ethanolic extract from fruits showed significant dose dependent protection against urolithiosis induced by glass bead implantation in albino rats ( Anand et al .1994)

  1. Hepato protective Activity:

T. Terrestrio is reported against ccl4 induced hepato toxicity in rats lee el al 1992.

  1. Diuretic activity:

Decoction of fruits to posses moderate deictic activity in rats.

Alkaloid from T. Terrestris produced slight rise in BP and appreciable rise in kidney volume chopro 1956.

 

DOSAGE / MATRA

 

Fruit powder                :         3 – 6 gms

Decoction                      :         50 – 100 ml

 

FORMULATIONS:

Goksuradi choorna

Goksuradi Avaleha

Goksusadi Guggulu

Goksusadi Kvada

Dasamularishta

Trikandakadhya Ksira

Svadanstradi kasayam

Trikandakabija churnam

Brahat varunadi kvatha

 

CULTIVATION & MANAGEMENT

 

The plant widely naturalized in America & also in Australia south of its native range. Insome states in the united states, considered as invasive species. It has been reported that puncture vine seeds have been used in homicidal weapons in south Africa murderers smear them with the poisonous juice of Acokanrthera vencnata & put them where victim are likely to step.

The nullets of this plant resembles goats or bellow heads the horns are sharp enough to puncture the bicycle to cause painful injure to bare feet.

 

SUBSTITUTES AND ADULTRENTS

Roots of Tribulus alatus delite and pedalium murex linn.  Of family pedaliaceae are ued as substitutes in western India. The drug otherwise, is very easily available and have no problem of adultration.

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