Tribulus terrestris – Ayurvedic Herb
The Names & synonyms of Gokshura are not found in the Vedic literature charaka identified it as the best drug for mutrakrichra [dysuria] and vata rogas [c.s. su. 25]. It is one of the herbs which is “mutrala” diuretic as well as “sothahara” anti inflammatory. The root is used in Dasamoolaa while the fruit is vrysya Bapalji is of the view that both roots & fruits are to be used along with whole plant in Asmari [urolithiosis]
Quoting this great teacher late Amrtalal P. pattani, vaidya Bapalal stated that “Trikantaka” should posses three spines / spar but not six or four as the case with Tribulus or pedalium even considering the term gokshura the fruit is not like a hoof of cow.
Siva Das sen considered that bigger varity of Goksura is the best one while commenting on Chakradatta.
Gokshura : Fruits are armed with spines.
Gokantaka : Injure feel of grazing cattle, especially when they get pricked to hoots.
Trikantaka : The fruits have 3 pairs of thrones.
Ikshugandika : The herb having the aroma of sugar care.
vanasrnkata : Fruits resembling water chest nut.
chanadruma : The plant has leaves like those of Bengal gram plant.
Stalasrnkataka : The fruits resembles water chestnut.
shadanka : The plant posses the spine as sixth part, apart from usual 5 parts of the plant.
palamkasha : The spines of fruit, gets prick in the muscular portion of the cattles & thus causing injury to grazing cattle.
English – Cow hage
Hindi – Gokhara
Malayalam – Njerinjil
Kannada – Negalu
Telugu – Palleru
Sanskrit – Goksurah
Tamil – Nerinci
- Whole Plant
Fruits: contains traces of an alkaloid, a fixed oil, a small quantity of essential oil, resins & nitrates, chlorogenin, diosgenin, gitogenin, rutin, rhamnose .
Roots: Campesterol, B-sitosterol & stigmasterol, neotigogenin.
Aerial parts: Astragalin, dioscin, diosgenin, hecogenin, ruscogenin, trillin, furostanol, glycoside, spirosterol, saponin, terrestrosides A – F saponins C& G etc.
PROPERTIES / RASA PANCHAKA
Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Dosha karma : Vataplttasamaka
Mutrala – Asmarinasana
Vrsya – Vajikarana
Vedanasthapana – Vatasamaka
Hrydya – Raktapitta samaka
PRAYOGA / INDICATIONS
Asmari – Mutrkricha – Mutraghata
Napunsakata – Klibya
Garbhasrava – pata
Udaka –kusta vikara vibandha
- Vajikarana – powder of Gokshura fruit is boiled with milk & consumed
- Amavata – Decoction of sunit & Gokshura will be defanite use
- Kesavardhana – Gokshura & the flowers of Tila are applied externally by making them into paste using honey (Sa. Sam)
- The fresh leaves & stems, briskly agitated in cold water, speedly convert into a thick mucilage , namely of the consistence of the white of a raw egg. Inodorous & taste less.
- An infusion of fresh leaves & stems is used as an esteemed remedy for treating gonohrrhoea & dysuria.
- Juice used as aphthae as local application.
- Kashaya used in irritation of the urinary organs.
- Given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea in continence of uria & impotency.
- Leaves used as a curry in spleenic enlargements.
- Fruits of laghu Goksura useful as alternative , aphrodasic antihmelmentic, anti-arthritic , cooling, demulcent , tonic , constipative used in kidney diseases, painful miturition & urinary discharge.
- Anti caner activity.
One of the three new steroidal saponins from the fruits of T.terrestris exhibited cytotoxic activity against a human malignant melanoma cell line (Behdir & khan 2000)
- Nephroprotective Activity:
Nephroprotective activity was evaluated in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity ( 50 mg/kg/ day s.c) in male abinorats, NR- AG – I, NR- AG] were tested given for 12 days. Vrea clearance & microscopically examinations of kidney were performed after treatment . Gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant reduction in urea clearance & was prevented by both formulations.
- Lithotriptic property & Aphrodiastic property:
An ethanolic extract from fruits showed significant dose dependent protection against urolithiosis induced by glass bead implantation in albino rats ( Anand et al .1994)
- Hepato protective Activity:
T. Terrestrio is reported against ccl4 induced hepato toxicity in rats lee el al 1992.
- Diuretic activity:
Decoction of fruits to posses moderate deictic activity in rats.
Alkaloid from T. Terrestris produced slight rise in BP and appreciable rise in kidney volume chopro 1956.
DOSAGE / MATRA
Fruit powder : 3 – 6 gms
Decoction : 50 – 100 ml
Brahat varunadi kvatha
CULTIVATION & MANAGEMENT
The plant widely naturalized in America & also in Australia south of its native range. Insome states in the united states, considered as invasive species. It has been reported that puncture vine seeds have been used in homicidal weapons in south Africa murderers smear them with the poisonous juice of Acokanrthera vencnata & put them where victim are likely to step.
The nullets of this plant resembles goats or bellow heads the horns are sharp enough to puncture the bicycle to cause painful injure to bare feet.
SUBSTITUTES AND ADULTRENTS
Roots of Tribulus alatus delite and pedalium murex linn. Of family pedaliaceae are ued as substitutes in western India. The drug otherwise, is very easily available and have no problem of adultration.