Khubakala(Sisymbrium Irio L)

INTRODUCTION

 

Family Cruciferae is one of the most wide spread plant Kingdom. Most of the plants belonging to this family are of economic importance, being either very common food (care, 1955) plants or constitute important articles in oil (Winton, 1946) production. Moreover, many members of the family have wide applications in folk medicines. Sisymbrium Species is one of Cruciferae members which have many uses in folk medicines in treatment of Inflammation and Rheumatoid (Bolus – 1983), By reviewing the literature this genus was found to contain Flavanoids (Khanetal 1991)Itziard 1982, Rizket.al..1986 and Lock wood &Fsharypuor 1986], alkaloids anthraquinones [Arayno and Zapor, 1983] oils, steroids (Soulier, 1994) and glycosides (Kretset al..1987).Some workers mentioned that SisymbiumIrio has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-microbial activities.

While SisymbiumOfficinale has a role in treatment of Voice disorders (mayeret.al.1994).On the other hand Sisymbiumthellungii showed anti-oxidant activity [Lindsey et.al, 2002].

SisymbriumIrio L (Cruciferae) is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia (migahed.1996, collenete, 1999). The seeds were used as expectorant and as Febrifuge [Ghazanfar, 1994]. Reviewing the current literature, few reports were found dealing with SisymbriumIrio L. Some worker studied the fixed oil percent, Fatty acid and oil composition of the sedds [Rauf and Ahmed 2004, Al – Qudah and Abuzarga 2010].

Three Flavanoids and two sitosterols were isolated from seeds and aerial parts of SisymbriumIrioL.could be used for dietary purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients and protein (35%) content (Guil et.al.1988).The ethanol extract from the seeds of SisymbriumIrioExhibited significant antipyretic and analgesic activities in addition to marked anti-bacterial action with no effect against fungi.

Due to the high nutritional value and the use of SisymbriumIrio L.in folk medicine with no published data about the Saudi Arabia species, we found that it’s worthy to carry out phytochemical and pharmacological study on it.

 

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

  • English : Hedge mustard, London Rocket
  • Hindi : Khaksi, Aslio,Khubkaln
  • Arabic : Khubb, Khuban
  • Punjab : JangliSarsan
  • Sindh : Maktarusa
  • Persian : Khubakalan, Khaksi, Khakachi
  • Urudu : khubakalan
  • Kannada : Khubakala
  • Malayalam : Khubakala

 

PARTS USED

 

  • Flowers
  • Leaves
  • Seed

 

DOSAGE

 

 

  • Choorna – 3 to 6 g

 

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

Ten Flavanoids

 

  • Apigenin
  • Apigenin -7-galactoside
  • Apigenin -7-0-B-d glucoside
  • Luteolin – 7-0 – glucoside
  • Apigenin -7-di glucoside 5.
  • Apigenin -7-0-[6 actetyl] glucoside.
  • Apigenin -7-0- gluco -[6-1] Rhamnoside
  • Apigenin -5-methoxide
  • Kampferol
  • Kampferol – 3 –xyloside – 7 – galactoside.

 

PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGHNATA

 

 

  • Rasa: -Katu
  • Guna: – Guru, Snigda, Sara, Picchila
  • Veerya: -Ushna
  • Vipaka: -Katu
  • Doshaghnata:-Vathashaamaka, Balya, Swedani, Kaphahara
  • Karma: -Brhmana, Balya, Jwaragna.

 

KARMA

Doshakarma:-

  • Vatashamaka
  • Kaphanisaraka

Samsthanika Karma:-

  1. Bahya – Shothahara, Vedanashamaka
  2. Aabhyantara
  • Pachanasamsthana –
    • Vatanulomana
      • Trshnanigrahana
      • Chardinigrahana
    • Shwasanasamsthana – Kaphahara
    • Thwacha – Swedajanana

 

PRAYOGA

 

  • NetraShotha :- KhubakalaLepana is given
  • Visuchika: -Khubakala is made into arka form and is taken internally.
  • ShwasaKhasa :- Khubakala is given as Avaleha
  • TwakVikara: -KhubakalaLepana is done.
  • SthanaShotha: -Lepa is done externally.

 

FOLKLORE USES

 

  • Young shoots & seeds of Khubakalaare dried and powdered to flavor the dishes.
  • In traditional Folk medicine the plant has been used as a mild laxative, diuretic, expectorant.
  • In olden days this drug has been used to heal stomach ailments.
  • In France, this plant was used to be widely known as singer’s plant as it is having great properties to treat the voice.
  • In Greece it was believed that this plant was an anti-dote to all poisons.
  • This seed can be dried, ground into a powder than mixed with water and used as Gruel.

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

The drug Kula or Khakasi commonly known as Khubkalan is an expectorant(Kaphanisaraka or Chedana) medicine which is given in Cough, Asthma and hoarseness or sore throat (Kasa, Svasa, Swarabheda).It is taken in fever with Cough and allied symptoms. Drug is also specific in fevers particularly eruptive fevers in order to early appearance of eruptions and gradually lowering down the temperature in febrile condition of patient as the drug is diaphretic and digesting immature rasa.

The seeds of plants drug are externally as well as internally used. In flatulence and Gastro enteritisthe seeds powder mixed in aqua rose is taken to cheek over thirst and vomiting.

 

PHARMACO THERAPEUTIC

 

Seeds:-

  • There expectorant restorative and stimulant.
  • They are used in the treatment of Asthma.
  • Seeds have been placed under the lids of sore eyes in order to cause weeping and there by wash foreign matter out of the eyes.
  • Externally they are used as a stimulating poultice.
  • The ethanol extracts from the seeds exhibit significant anti-pyretic and analgesic activities.
  • The seeds also have anti-bacterial action.

 

Leaves:-

  • They are used in treating infections of throat and chest.

 

RESEARCH STUDIES

 

  • The median lethal dose of the extract was determined in mice & found to be greater than 500mg/kg body weight, suggesting that this plant is non – toxic.
  • Anti-oxidant activities were assessed for all extracts and fractions and isolated compounds and showed anti-oxidant activity, with apigenin – 7- 0 galuctoside being the most potent.

st Indian Reprint 2007, Page No :207.

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