KRISHNAJEERAKA – Black caraway – Ayurvedic Herb

 

KRSNAJEERAKA Linn

 

 

Krishnajeeraka is as famous as Jeeraka in the Ayurvedic  texts since Sushrutha mentioned Jeeraka  dravya.

Chakrapani commented that Karvi means Krishnajeeraka.

Charaka described it as rochana and pachana in nature.  Krishnajeeraka is mainly indicated for jeernajwara(Chrinic fever) and grahani disorders.

 

SYNONYMS

Krishnajeeraka:-        The seeds resemble like jeeraka and black in  colour.

Sugandha:-                Having pleasant smell.

Udarashodan:-           That which relieves udara or belching by its deepan action.

Jarna:-                              Having deepan property.

Kanajeeraka:-                    Same like  jeeraka grain.

Kasmirjeeraka:-                   Grows in Kashmir.

Varshakali/Kalapeshika:-    The seeds having black colour.

Bahugand:-                          Strong aromatic smell.

Bedini:-                                Having bedini property.

Ruchya:-                              Improve taste

Nila/Nilakana/Varnakali:-      The grains are dark in colour

Danta shodini:-                       Useful in dental diseases

Hridva:                                    Useful  in heart  diseases

Kalajeeraka:-                           Like jeeraka but black in colour

 

TYPES OF KRISHNAJEERAKA

 

Certain Nighantu works described:

 

Six varieties

 

Shwetajeeraka

Peethajeeraka

Krishnajeeraka

Sukshmajeeraka

Sthulajeeraka

Vanajajeeraka

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

Sanskrit:           Krishnajeeraka

Hindi:                Kalajeera

Kannada:           Karijireege, Shahajirige

Tamil:                Karamjeeragam,Shimaishambu

Telugu:               Nallajeelalkara

Malayalam:         Karunjeeraka,Karinjeerakam

English:              Black caraway, Black cumin, Indian caraway

Bengali:              So-jeera

Persian:              Jeerya-riza, Zira

Marathi:              Jeere

Arabilc:               Kamuna,Karum-aswad

Espernato:          Karvio

Francais:            Carvi

Gujarati:             Shahijeerum

Hornjoserbsce:    Kirnjeleka

Italiano:              Carvi

Kashmiri:            Krihunzur

Kurdi:                  Jaj

Latina:                Carecum,

Latviesu:             Plavas Kirnene

Magyar:               Kormerry

Nederlands:         Karwij

Norsk:              Karve

Origa:               Kalajira

Polski:               Krninek Zwyezajrry

Portugues:         Alcaravia

Punjabi:             Zira Siyah

Roman:              Chirnan

Shquip:              Qumnoni

Slovencina:         Rasca, Kumina

Suomi:                Kumina

Svenska:             Kummin

Urdu:                  Zira siyah,Kalajeera

Veneto:                Kumo

 

PROPERTIES

 

Rasa:                         Katu

Guna:                        Ruksha

Veerya:                       Ushna

Vipaka:                       Katu

Doshakarma:              Kafavathashamaka

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL  ACTION

 

Dhanwanthari nighantu    Raja nighantu   Madhanapala nighantu

Ruchya                   Gulma           Sangrahi

Ajeerna                  Adhmana         Medhya

Jwaragna                 Athisara        Garbashayavishudhi

Chakshushy               Grahni          Adhmana

Krimi                           Chardhi

Gulma

 

THERAPEUTIC USE

Mukhapaka:    Krishnajeeraka,Kushta and indrayava  are to be

chewed together for three days  (Yogaratnakara)

Vishamajwara:  Krishnajeeraka should be given with jaggery.

(Bhavaprakasha)

Pratishyaya:      Krishnajeeraka is packed  in a piece of cloth and

used for smelling in case of cold/nasal obstruction.

(Vangasena)

The Arka prepared from krishnajeeraka is used in children to relieve the vatha in abdomen.

Malarial fever:  In take of krishnajeeraka with equal quantity of

jaggery and a bit of Maricha.  (Bhavaprakasha)

Krishnajeeraka is also used as an anupan for other medication.

The oil is used to give pleasant smell for other medicines.

 

The kavatha prepared out of krishnajeeraka is used for givening fomentation in inflammation of Arshas.  In vishamajwara krishnajeeraka  is  given with equal quantity of Guda.  The fruits are useful as stomachic,carminative and lactagogue.  It is abortifacient, antihelmenthic, aromatice, astringent, cardiac, lactogogue, purgative stimulant, stomachic and tonic.  It is a flavouring agent, it is one of the ingredients in curry power, they have powerful odour and flavor.  They are useful in amenorrhea, blood. Omitting with bile, general debility and dyspepsia, it is useful and eye wash for strengthening vision.

It is given in intermittent fever, painful swellings and protruding piles, it is used inrheumatism and worms.  The seeds with sugar and jaggery  mixed with a bit of maricha are given in malarial fever.  The seeds mixed with other suitable drugs drugs and vehicles are given to check all types of anorexia.

                  

  PART USED

  • FRUIT
  • SEED

 

         DESCRIPTION OF THE PART

 

Oblong, laterally compressed  and slightly curved fruits upto  5.mm long and 1.5mm broad.  Tapering towards both ends.  The mericarp is yellowish brown  in colour and  shows five equal sides with five narrow ridges which are very distinct, endosperm brown and somewhat oily.

Odour:-   Characteristic

Taste:-     Pungent.

 

DOSAGE

Choorna:      1-3 grams

 

FORMULATIONS

Jirakady arista –Bhaishajya ratnavali Sutika roga vikara

Jirakadi modaka-Yogagrantha

Yogaraja guggulu-Bhaishajya ratnavali Aamavatadikara

Ashtachoorna-Ashtanga Hrdaya Gulma chikitsa

Krshnajeeraka taila

Soubhagya shunti choorna

 

CHEMILCAL CONSTITULENTS

 

Seeds:  Essential oil, triacylglycerols, sterols petroselinic acid etc.

 

Eeesential oil:  Carvone, lilmonene, germacrence –D

Belemenle, P-cymene, cuminal trans-and

cis-carveol, carveol etc.

 

The dried and crushed seeds on steam distillation gave a pale yellow to light brown essential oil (known as CARWAY OIL) with a strong aromatic odour, carvone and limonene are the chief constituents of the oil  and is odour and flavor are mainly attribuded to them.

 

MODERN PHARMACOLOGY

Caraway in British pharmacopy and Indian Pharmacopy drug.  Caraway is an aromatic carminative used as caraway water in the treatment of flatulent colic of infants.  Caraway water is suitable vehicle for childrens mixture.

 

FLOWERING AND FRUITING TIME

Rainy  season,  autumn and cold seasons,

Winter season crop.

 

CULTIVATION

(Preparation for market)

 

Caraway does best when the seeds are sawn in the autumn, as soon as ripe, though they may be sawn in March, sown in drills, one foot part, the plants when strong enough, being thinned out to about 8 inches  in the rows.  The ground will require an occasional hoeing to keep it clean and assist  the growth of plants.  From an autumn sown crop, seeds will be produced in the following summer ripening about August.

When the fruit ripens the plant is cut and the caraway are separated by threshing.  They can be dried either on trays in the sun or by very gentle heat overa stove, shaking occasionally.  There are several varieties the English, Duch and German (obtained from plants extensively cultivated in Moravia and Prussia) and other varieties imported from Norway, Finland,  Russia and the Morocco ports.

 

SUBSTITUTES AND ADULTERANTS

Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedt. Syn carum bubocastamum Koch known as Kalazira or shimai shiragam is commonly used as substitute.  The fruits of this species are larger in size (upto 7 mm long and 2mm. wide) darker in colur seminterete  in shape and carvy a heavy spicy odour.  The two  ventral vittae in Bunium persicm are of carum carvi, where dorsal and ventral vittae are of the same  size coloured fruits of cumini cynimu inn are sometimes found as adultrants  in commercial samples.

 

RESEARCH

Carveol showed antihistaminic and antianaphylasctic effects in guinea pigs (Zhejiang yike Daxue xacbow 1988, 17, 115).

 

CONTROVERSIAL STUDIES

P.V.Sharmaji considered carum carvi as Karavi and

C.Bulbocastanum as krishnajeerak. Bapalalji also accepted carum carvi as Karagi (krishnajeeraka).  Dr.Nishteshwar.K. mentioned C.carvi as krishnajeeraka in his text . Thakurji quoted C.cyminum and C. carvi as shwetha and Krishna varieties of jeeraka, prithvika as C. bulbocastanum and Nigella sativa as Upakwncika.  This school appears to be more  appropriate and relevant.

 

DRUG BIOAVAILABILILTY ENHANCING ACTIVITY

A chemically standardized butanolic  fraction of carway seeds enhanced the plasma level of three anti tubercular drugs. Rifampicin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA) & Isoniacid (INH), when co-dosed in combination with rat.  In the presence of the herbal  fraction of carway, C max & AVC of RIF where enhanced by 63%  & 53%, for PZA it was 57% & 35% & for INH – 40% & 25%.  It is due to penneating enhancing effect of  carway.

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