KRISHNAJEERAKA – Black caraway – Ayurvedic Herb
Krishnajeeraka is as famous as Jeeraka in the Ayurvedic texts since Sushrutha mentioned Jeeraka dravya.
Chakrapani commented that Karvi means Krishnajeeraka.
Charaka described it as rochana and pachana in nature. Krishnajeeraka is mainly indicated for jeernajwara(Chrinic fever) and grahani disorders.
Krishnajeeraka:- The seeds resemble like jeeraka and black in colour.
Sugandha:- Having pleasant smell.
Udarashodan:- That which relieves udara or belching by its deepan action.
Jarna:- Having deepan property.
Kanajeeraka:- Same like jeeraka grain.
Kasmirjeeraka:- Grows in Kashmir.
Varshakali/Kalapeshika:- The seeds having black colour.
Bahugand:- Strong aromatic smell.
Bedini:- Having bedini property.
Ruchya:- Improve taste
Nila/Nilakana/Varnakali:- The grains are dark in colour
Danta shodini:- Useful in dental diseases
Hridva: Useful in heart diseases
Kalajeeraka:- Like jeeraka but black in colour
TYPES OF KRISHNAJEERAKA
Certain Nighantu works described:
Kannada: Karijireege, Shahajirige
English: Black caraway, Black cumin, Indian caraway
Persian: Jeerya-riza, Zira
Latviesu: Plavas Kirnene
Polski: Krninek Zwyezajrry
Punjabi: Zira Siyah
Slovencina: Rasca, Kumina
Urdu: Zira siyah,Kalajeera
Dhanwanthari nighantu Raja nighantu Madhanapala nighantu
Ruchya Gulma Sangrahi
Ajeerna Adhmana Medhya
Jwaragna Athisara Garbashayavishudhi
Chakshushy Grahni Adhmana
Mukhapaka: Krishnajeeraka,Kushta and indrayava are to be
chewed together for three days (Yogaratnakara)
Vishamajwara: Krishnajeeraka should be given with jaggery.
Pratishyaya: Krishnajeeraka is packed in a piece of cloth and
used for smelling in case of cold/nasal obstruction.
The Arka prepared from krishnajeeraka is used in children to relieve the vatha in abdomen.
Malarial fever: In take of krishnajeeraka with equal quantity of
jaggery and a bit of Maricha. (Bhavaprakasha)
Krishnajeeraka is also used as an anupan for other medication.
The oil is used to give pleasant smell for other medicines.
The kavatha prepared out of krishnajeeraka is used for givening fomentation in inflammation of Arshas. In vishamajwara krishnajeeraka is given with equal quantity of Guda. The fruits are useful as stomachic,carminative and lactagogue. It is abortifacient, antihelmenthic, aromatice, astringent, cardiac, lactogogue, purgative stimulant, stomachic and tonic. It is a flavouring agent, it is one of the ingredients in curry power, they have powerful odour and flavor. They are useful in amenorrhea, blood. Omitting with bile, general debility and dyspepsia, it is useful and eye wash for strengthening vision.
It is given in intermittent fever, painful swellings and protruding piles, it is used inrheumatism and worms. The seeds with sugar and jaggery mixed with a bit of maricha are given in malarial fever. The seeds mixed with other suitable drugs drugs and vehicles are given to check all types of anorexia.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PART
Oblong, laterally compressed and slightly curved fruits upto 5.mm long and 1.5mm broad. Tapering towards both ends. The mericarp is yellowish brown in colour and shows five equal sides with five narrow ridges which are very distinct, endosperm brown and somewhat oily.
Choorna: 1-3 grams
Jirakady arista –Bhaishajya ratnavali Sutika roga vikara
Yogaraja guggulu-Bhaishajya ratnavali Aamavatadikara
Ashtachoorna-Ashtanga Hrdaya Gulma chikitsa
Soubhagya shunti choorna
Seeds: Essential oil, triacylglycerols, sterols petroselinic acid etc.
Eeesential oil: Carvone, lilmonene, germacrence –D
Belemenle, P-cymene, cuminal trans-and
cis-carveol, carveol etc.
The dried and crushed seeds on steam distillation gave a pale yellow to light brown essential oil (known as CARWAY OIL) with a strong aromatic odour, carvone and limonene are the chief constituents of the oil and is odour and flavor are mainly attribuded to them.
Caraway in British pharmacopy and Indian Pharmacopy drug. Caraway is an aromatic carminative used as caraway water in the treatment of flatulent colic of infants. Caraway water is suitable vehicle for childrens mixture.
FLOWERING AND FRUITING TIME
Rainy season, autumn and cold seasons,
Winter season crop.
(Preparation for market)
Caraway does best when the seeds are sawn in the autumn, as soon as ripe, though they may be sawn in March, sown in drills, one foot part, the plants when strong enough, being thinned out to about 8 inches in the rows. The ground will require an occasional hoeing to keep it clean and assist the growth of plants. From an autumn sown crop, seeds will be produced in the following summer ripening about August.
When the fruit ripens the plant is cut and the caraway are separated by threshing. They can be dried either on trays in the sun or by very gentle heat overa stove, shaking occasionally. There are several varieties the English, Duch and German (obtained from plants extensively cultivated in Moravia and Prussia) and other varieties imported from Norway, Finland, Russia and the Morocco ports.
SUBSTITUTES AND ADULTERANTS
Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedt. Syn carum bubocastamum Koch known as Kalazira or shimai shiragam is commonly used as substitute. The fruits of this species are larger in size (upto 7 mm long and 2mm. wide) darker in colur seminterete in shape and carvy a heavy spicy odour. The two ventral vittae in Bunium persicm are of carum carvi, where dorsal and ventral vittae are of the same size coloured fruits of cumini cynimu inn are sometimes found as adultrants in commercial samples.
Carveol showed antihistaminic and antianaphylasctic effects in guinea pigs (Zhejiang yike Daxue xacbow 1988, 17, 115).
P.V.Sharmaji considered carum carvi as Karavi and
C.Bulbocastanum as krishnajeerak. Bapalalji also accepted carum carvi as Karagi (krishnajeeraka). Dr.Nishteshwar.K. mentioned C.carvi as krishnajeeraka in his text . Thakurji quoted C.cyminum and C. carvi as shwetha and Krishna varieties of jeeraka, prithvika as C. bulbocastanum and Nigella sativa as Upakwncika. This school appears to be more appropriate and relevant.
DRUG BIOAVAILABILILTY ENHANCING ACTIVITY
A chemically standardized butanolic fraction of carway seeds enhanced the plasma level of three anti tubercular drugs. Rifampicin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA) & Isoniacid (INH), when co-dosed in combination with rat. In the presence of the herbal fraction of carway, C max & AVC of RIF where enhanced by 63% & 53%, for PZA it was 57% & 35% & for INH – 40% & 25%. It is due to penneating enhancing effect of carway.