MUCHAKUNDA

Pterospermum acerifolium willd.,

 

It is botanically identified asPterospermum acerifolium, which belongs to the family Sterculiaceae.

 

 

LITERARY REVIEW

 

 

It is a tree with whitish yellow flower and is abundantly seen in Karnataka.

Susruta quoted Muchukunda under Granthi cikitsa (S.S.Ci.18/10).Apart from this we do not come across any references about this plant in Brihatrayis .However most of the nighantus emphasized in skin disorders,Vrana etc.

 

Pterospermum acerifolium (karnikara tree) is an angiosperm indigenous to Southeast Asia, from India to Burma. Today it is mainly cultivated in Pakistan and North American. It is most likely to grow naturally along forested stream banks. The best growing conditions are a seasonally moist then dry climate with access to full sunlight. Pterospermum acerifolium is an angiosperm that is traditionally included in the Sterculiaceae family; however, it is grouped in the expanded Malvaceae family as well. The classification Pterospermum is based on two Greek words, Pteron and Sperma, meaning “winged seed.” There is an array of common names for Pterospermum acerifolium, depending on the region where it is grown. It is commonly referred to as Kanak Champa or Karnikar Tree within its native range. Other common names include Bayur Tree, Maple-Leafed Bayur Tree, and Dinner Plate Tree. It is a relatively a large tree, growing up to thirty meters tall. Mostly planted as an ornamental or shade tree, the leaves, flowers, and wood of a Bayur Tree can serve a variety functions.

 

TYPES [BHEDA]

 

No types are mentioned in Ayurvedic text book

 

Botanical sources – Pterospermum acerifolium wild

– Pentapetes acerifolia Linn

 

SYNONYMS

 

 

GANAS OR VARGAS

 

 

 

  • Kula – Pishachakarpasa kula
  • Bhavaprakasha nighantu – Pushpa varga
  • Raja nighantu – Karaveeradi varga
  • Kaiyadeva nighantu – Oshadhi varga

 

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

 

  • Hindi          – Mucakuna
  • Uriya          – Konokochompa
  • Tamil          – Matsakanda
  • Telugu    – Lolugu
  • Konkani          – Kanokchampo
  • Nepal – Hattipaila
  • Burma – Thamajamwaisoke
  • Bengal – Kanakchampa
  • Philippines   – Bayoc

 

 

DOSHAGHNATA

 

 

  • Rasa –        Kasaya, Katu
  • Guna –       Laghu,Ruksha
  • Veerya – Usna
  • Vipaka – Katu
  • Doshaghnata – Tridoshghna

 

ACTIONS [ KARMA]

 

 

The various karmas enumerated are:

  • Kaphaghna-kanthya.
  • Kushtagna-tvacya-kandughna.
  • Vrana ropana-shodana.
  • Daha prashamana.

 

USAGE [ PRAYOGA]

 

  • Sira shoola.
  • Mosurika-dhaha
  • Vedana pradhana vata vikara.
  • Kasa-Shwasa-Svara bheda
  • Visa
  • Twagvikara-kustha-kandu

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

  • Flowers
  • Kaempferol – 3-0-galactoside
  • Luteolin – 7-0-glucoside
  • Luteolin – 7-0-glucuronide
  • Kaempferide -7-0-beta-glucopyranoside
  • Friedelanol
  • Beta-sitosterol
  • Mixture of acids
  • Saturated hydrocarbons

Flowers contain volatile oil (responsible for aroma in flowers) and the seeds yield an yellowish oil 22.6 percent.

 

UPAYUKTANGA-USEFUL PART

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Flowers

 

POSOLOGY [ MATRA]

 

  • Powder 3 -6gm

 

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

  • The drug mucakunda pacifies tridoshas and raktapitta.
  • The drug is blood purifier haemostatics,analegesic and anti-pruritic.It is benefecial for throat.
  • Externally the flowers of drug mucakunda are pounded with water and applid over head as the flowers of mucakunda relieves headache immediately which is an important medicinal utiity in classical uses of muchakunda.
  • Mucakunda is recommended for external application as a paste over vidradhi.
  • The drug in general is considered useful in kasa,tvag dosha,visha,kandu or pama,kantha vikara,shotha shofa,rakta dosha –rakta vikara and vedana vikara.
  • The oil is prepared with the flowers of Mucakunda (flowers cooked in tila taila or sesome oil according tailapaka vidhi) and the oil is applied to head.
  • A paste of flowers was applied over the forehead for providing relief during headache, hemicranias.
  • It was also used externally to small pox.
  • The flowers and bark are charred and mixed with the powder of Mallotus philippinesis flowers for application to small pox.
  • Muchakanda flowers credited with blood purifying, anti inflammatory, anti septic properties.

 

FOLKLORE USES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As mentioned before, one of the common names for Pterospermum acerifolium is the Dinner Plate Tree. The utilization of the leaves is exactly what the name depicts. Mature leaves are very large, reaching a length and width of up to thirty five centimeters.

They can be useas actual dinner plates or as packaging and storage by wrapping materials inside.

The leaves can also serve as a primitive method of re-enforcing roofs and preventing leaks. The pubescent under surface of the leaves is said to stop bleeding and can be used as tinder for a means of sparking fires.

The flowers of the Bayur tree can serve as a pleasant perfume and can even keep away insects. The flowers also provide a number of medicinal uses. An effective tonic can be prepared, as well as being used as a cure for inflammation, ulcers, blood problems, and even tumors.

The reddish wood of the Bayur Tree can be used for planking. Because the wood is soft, it is not considered to be very strong. However it is incredibly durable and somewhat flexible, making it perfect for planking and wooden boxes. The Bayur Tree even serves a cultural function. Local Hindu people employ the plant for religious purposes

 

 

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

[VISHISHTA YOGAS]

 

 

  • Himanshu taila

 

RESEARCH STUDY

 

In an earlier study in our laboratory, the ethanolic extractof P. acerifolium were found to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The work was aimed at the scientific validation of the ethnopharmacological claim about effect of bark extract on oxidative damages in the gastric tissue during alcohol inducedulceration. As ulcers are essentially due to imbalance between offensive and defensive factor2,3, the effect of alcoholic extract of P.acerifolium on offensive factors like acidpepsin.

The effect of Pterospermum acerifolium (150, 300mg/kg) on gastric secretion (volume, pH, total acidity and peptic activity) was studied in Pylorus ligated rats, Pterospermum acerifoliumwas administeredorally 30 min. pyloric ligation. The animals were sacrificedafter 4 hours following pyloric ligation,1 gastric content were controlledand analyzed for volume, acidity ,pH and peptic activity.

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