The Generic name is the ancient Greek name Delphinium for Larkspur and is derived from Greek word Delphis, a dolphin referring to the nectary of plants to the imaginary figure of Dolphin.
Delphinium is a genus of about 300Species of Perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of Tropical Africa.
The common name lackspur is shared between perennial Delphinium species & annual species of the genus consolida. Molecular data shows that Consolida, as well as another segregate genus Aconitella are both embedded in Delphinium.
A common species from 1500 – 2700m Delphinium denudatum & chaudhri as described by authors is supposed to differ from the type variety in the 3 lobed deeply divided leaves, the ultimate segments being narrowly linear. In the type variety the leaves are Variable, generally the leaves are 5 lobed with broader segments but occasionally on the same plant the radical leaves are broad & upper stem leaves are 3-5 lobed with narrow linear segments .Similarly Delphinium denudatum & Chaudhri described with broader leaf segments does not differ substantially for the type variety.
‘Visalyakarni’ not mentioned in Vriddhatrayi and not either in Dhanwanthari & Raja nighantu also Vaidyaka Sabda has mentioned it as ‘Nirvishi’ & ‘Ayapana’. Ayapana is very famous in Bengal outside Bengal only few know about it.
‘Visalyakarni’ is famous plant mentioned in Ramayana when Rama & Laxmana were unconscious physician Susena asked Hanuman to bring this plant from Dronachala Mountain. Hanuman went there but couldn’t identify the plant as tutored by Susena. So he lifted the whole Dronachal Mountain and brought it to Lanka. Susena squeezed out the juice from the plant and instilled drops in both nostrils and thus both brothers were brought to their senses.
‘Ayapana’ is an under shrub, ascending branching, glabrous. It cannot be Visalyakarni but as many believe it so.Visalyakarni was a celestial (divya) plant. Many divya plants have been mentioned in Charaka and Susruta but they are not known nowadays. It requires divya dristi(divine eyes) to see them.
The drug ‘Nirvisha’ is quoted in Raja Nighantu .It is explained under Pippalyadi Varga. Nirvisha reference can be got from Susruta Samhitha – Uttara Sthana under the name of Vishahara Dravya’s.
English : Larkspur
Hindi : Jadravar, Nirvishi ,Paathali ,Nirbisha
Kannada : Nirvishi
Marathi : Nirvishi, Mustu
Bengali : Nirvibishi ,Swethagothubi
Nepali : Nil bikh
Telugu : Nirvishi ,Anuang
Tamil : Nirhishi
Arabic : Jadwara
Malayalam : Nirvasi ,Mottenga ,Timottenga
Moola Choorna: – 500mg – 1gm
Alkaloids Viz, Delphine & Staphisagrine.
An Alkaloid Delphocurarine has been extracted from root by Merck.Diterpene Alkaloids – Denudatine, Denudatidine from roots.
Roots –Sterols – Compesterol, Stigmasterol ,Silosterol, Cholestero & Aranasterol & Alkaloids – Denudatidine, Denudatidine, Condelphine & Taletizidine, Delphinine & Staphisagrine.
PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATHA
Rasa : Thiktha, Katu
Guna : Laghu , Rooksha.
Virya : Ushna.
Vipaka : Katu.
Dosha Karma : Tridosha Shamaka
Dosha: Kaphaghna, Vataghna
Dhatu: Raktagami, Mamsavardhak
Doshakarma: – Tridosha shamaka
Bahya: – Shothahara, Lekhana, Vishagna, Vedanasthapana.
- Nadisamsthana :- Balya, Vatahara
- Pachansamsthana:-Deepana, Aamapchana, Pittasaraka, Anulomana
- Raktavahasamsthana :- Hridya, Raktashodaka
- Shwasanasamsthana :- Kaphahara
- Prajananasamsthana :- Vajeekarana, Artava janana
- Mutravahasamsthana:- Asmari nashana, Mutrala
- Thapa Krama:- Jwaragna
- Satmeekarana :- Uttejaka, Katu postika
- Uttama Vishagna:- Sarpa, Vatsanabha, Hrth patree Visa
Bahya: – Shotha, Varna vikara, Kusta, Vedana used as lepa. It is chewed in dantashoola. Used as lepa in Sarpa Visa
- Nadisamsthana :- Nadi dourbalya , Vivida Vata vyadhi(Pakshaghatha , Ardita , Akshepaka)
- Pachansamsthana :- Agni mandya , Aamadosha , Kamala , Udara roga
- Raktavahasamsthana :- Hrid dourbalya , Upadamsa
- Shvasana Samsthana:-Prathishchaya , Khasa , Shvasa
- Prajananasamsthana :- Vajeekarana, Kasta Artava
- Mutravahasamsthana:- Asmari , Mutra Kriccha
- Thapa Karma:- Jwara
- Satmeekarana :- Uttejaka , Balya
It is a Vata, Pitta & Kapha suppressant. It helps in reducing the inflammation & also helps in relieving pain. It helps in curbing the infection happening in the body & wounds. It is a good nervine tonic & makes the nervous system strong. It improves digestion & normalizes the peristaltic movements in the gut. It stimulates heart for normal functioning & also helps in purifying the infected blood. It checks the respiratory system by expelling out extra mucus from it. It is a good aphrodisiac agent & also normalizes the menstrual cycle.
Its root is astringent, Vulnerary, deobstruent, alternative. It is used for painful piles, Muscular atrophy, and gout & as a nervine tonic. Also used as an adulterant for aconite.
Oral administration of aqueous extract of plants to rats with ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity revealed hepatopeotective property of plant.
Local application of Nirvisa is best anti- dote in poisoning by snake, Strychnine & digitalis.
- Visa roga: – Root powder is used in treatment of snake bites, aconite poisoning & digitalis poisoning.
- Danta roga:- Root is chewed to relieve tooth ache
In classical books of Unani medicine, Jadwar is referred as anti-pyretic, anti-septic vulnerary, detergent, diuretic, exhilavant, resolvant, anti-inflammatory, demuliant, Sedative, Analgesic, Aphrodisiac, Anti-dote, Cardio tonic, General tonic, Brain & nervine tonic &tonic for viscera, teeth stomach, Vision & Principal Organs. Jadwar has been recommended for treatment of Paralysis, epilepsy, Facial palsy, Insanity, Mania hysteria atony, Migraine ,Numbness, tremors, infantile convulsions, aconite poisoning, Snake bite, Scorpion Sting , Opium addiction, Arthritis, Cardiac weakness, Palpitation, Rheumatism, Tooth ache, all kinds of pain, Leucoderma & for improving skin complexion.
All parts of the plant contain various diterpenoid alkaloids typified by methylcaconitine, so are very poisonous. In small amounts, extracts of the plant have been used in herbal medicine.
Delphinium is used to treat intestinal worms, fluid retention, poor appetite & trouble sleeping (Insomnia).It is also used as a Sedative to cause relaxation. Gerard’s herbal reported that drinking the seed of Larkspur was thought to help against the Stings of Scorpions & that other poisonous animals could not move even when covered by the herb, but that he did not believe this himself. Mrs. Greive reports that the seeds can be used against parasites, especially Lice & their nits in the hair. A tincture is used against asthma deopsy.
The plant was connected to Saint Odile of Alsace, a paleoness of good eyesight & so in popular medicine was used against eye diseases.