Salaparni(Desmodium giganticum Roxb)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In kousika sutra Amsumati name is used for prsniparni.Its external application is considered as antiseptic/antimicrobial.

Two drugs Salaparni and Prsniparni are described together as parnini dravya in the classical ayurvedic literature. Along with Mudgaparni and Masaparni the quartet is known as “Parnini catasrah”.

Charaka described Vidarigandha as best among vrsya and sarva doshahara dravya.Parnini dravya is considered to be antiseptic as well as antidote for many poisons.It is extensively used being one of the ingredients of Dasamula.

 

SYNONYMS AND INTERPRETATION

 

SALAPARNI – The leaves looks like Sala leaves.

AMSUMATHI –Roots are fibrous.

GUHA – Roots are deep seated.

DEERGARGHI – Having long roots.

VIDARIGANDHA – Having smell of vidarigandha.

SOUMYA – It has action of rasayana like that of soma.

STHIRA – Gives strength to body.

THRIPARNI – Having three leaflets.

THANVIKA – A slender herb.

SHOOLAROGAHARI – Alleviates painful condition.

SHOPHAGNI – Useful in sopha.

 


 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

  • HINDI – Sarivan,Salaparni
  • BENGALI – Shalapani
  • MARATI – Salavan
  • GUJARATI – Shalavan
  • TELUGU –Gitanaram,Kolakuponna,Nakkatokaponna
  • TAMIL – Pulladi,Moovilai
  • MALAYALAM – Pullati,Moovila
  • KANNADA – Nariyalavona,Murele honne

 

VARIETIES

 

  • Two varieties viz; Salaparni and Salaparni visesa are described in Dhanvantari Nighantu.Later herb is denoted with synonyms like Alakam,palakam,vota and kusumbham.It may be D.pulcellum .P.V.Sharmaji reported that the following plants are being used as Salaparni:-

1) Desmodium polycarpium DC

2) Uraria lagopoides DC

3) Uraria hamosa wall

4) Flemingia paniculata wall

5) Flemingia stricta Roxb.

 

 

MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

  • N,N-dimethyltryltryptamine
  • Hypaphorine
  • Hordenine
  • Caudicine
  • Gangetin-3H
  • Gangetinin
  • Desmodin

PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATHA

 

  • RASA – Madhura, Thiktha
  • GUNA – Guru,Snigdha
  • VEERYA – Ushna
  • VIPAKA – Madhura
  • DOSHAGNATHA – Tridoshashamaka

 

KARMA

 

  • Angamardhaprasamana
  • Naadi balya
  • Deepana-snehana-anulomana
  • Sthambana
  • Krimigna
  • Hrdya-shodahara
  • Shonitha sthapana
  • Kaphanisaraka
  • Vrshya
  • Mootrala
  • Jwaragna
  • Balya
  • Brahmana
  • Rasayana

 

PRAYOGA

 

  • Naadidaurbalya
  • Vaatavyadhi-vaataraktha
  • Dourbalya
  • Agnimaandya-koshavaata
  • Athisara
  • Vamana
  • Krimi
  • Arsha
  • Hrdroga
  • Rakthavikara
  • Shotha
  • Hrthshoola
  • Urakshatha
  • Kasa
  • Yakshma
  • Shukra dourbalya
  • Mootra krichra
  • Prameha
  • Vishama jwara
  • Kshaya
  • Shopha
  • Netravikara
  • Sirashoola
  • Moodagarbha
  • Balaroga

 

THERAUPATIC USES

 

The drug Salaparni is used asalterative,anthelmintic,anti-catarrhal,carminative,diuretic,expectorant,febrifuge,nervine tonic,anti diarrhoel,stomachic and tonic.Drug is useful in asthma,brain affections,feverscatarrhal, Inflammation,vomiting and scorpionsting.

The drug possesastringent,aphrodisiac,anthelmintic,diuretic,febrifuge and tonic properties.It is used in general anasarca,consumption,cough,Diarrhoea,fever including enteric fever piles,respiratory disorders vomiting and worms.The drug is used as  an ingredient of a number of official preparation of classical remedies  such as Agasthya harithaky rasayana,brahma rasayana,Dasamula kvata curna,Vidaryadi curna kvata,Eladi ghrta,Dasamula satapalaka ghrtha,Dadhika ghrtha,Sudarsana curna,Dhanvanthara ghrtha,Narayana taila,Madhuyastyadi taila,Sahacaradi taila,Mansamitra taila and Salaparnyadi kvatha,Laghupanchamoola kvatha,Dasamularishta and some other compound formulations.

  • In arthavabhedaka-salaparni juice should be used for nasya or apply locally (A.H.ut-24)
  • In Hrchulla (Hrdgatavata)-Salaparni boiled with milk is useful (V.S)
  • In vatarakta-Salaparni and Prsniparni are pounded with milk and given orally (S.S.Ci-5)

USEFUL PART

 

  • Roots
  • Whole plant

 

 

DOSAGE

 

Decoction – 50-100ml

 

FORMULATIONS

 

 

  1. Salaparnyadi kvatha
  2. Dasamula kvatha
  3. Dasamularishta
  4. Laghupanchamula
  5. Chyavanaprasha

 

RESEARCH WORK

 

 

  • The aqueous extract of the root exhibited anti inflammatory,anti bacterial and anti fungal activities. The drug showed inhibitory effect on the frog’sheart. It had a relaxant effect on the smooth muscles of intestines of rabbit and dog and on the isolated rat uterus. The drug had mild diuretic effect and it inhibited respiration in mild doses. It was found to be non toxic in acute toxicity studies.

 

  • The totalAlkaloid fraction of stem and leaves exhibited curariform activity on frog’s rectus muscle.

 

  • Gangetin,one of the pterocarpans,isolated from the hexane extract of the root produced significant anti inflammatory activity in the exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation at 50 and 100mg/kg P.O in rats.

 

  • gangeticumhas been found to possess the bronchio-dialator,vasopressor,cardiac stimulant effects similar to indirectly acting catecholamine.The alkaloid fraction was found to possess mild analgesic and antipyretic activities.

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