(Alstonia scholaris R.br)
In keshava padhati saptaparna garland is described (ke.pa38/21).
Pathanjala bhashya described it as a tree possessing seven leaves at each node(pa/ma/2/3/1).
Dalhana also provides its morphological description mentioning that its leaves are like those of shalmali(Dalhana-s.s.su.36).
Shiva dutta mentioned it as bahuguchha ie with multiple inflorescence .Charaka quoted its flowers under Sirovirecana dravyas,
Susrutha delineated it under Adhobhagahara dravyas1.
Mentioning of this plant under Kushtagna and Udardaprashamana groups indicates about its utility in skin disorders. It is also used as anti- malarial drug and is one of the ingredients of Ayush-64(Anti-malarial drug) developed by CCRAS in 19782.
SYNONYMS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION
Grahanasana :– Relieves Grahas or bad Omen.
Vishamacchada :– The plant provides a potent drug for vishama jwara and also means odd number of leaves.
Saptaparna :– Generally seven leaves arranged in whorals.
Ayugmapatra :– It does not have even number of leaves at each node.
Shalmali patraka :– Petioles are like shalmali patraka.
Saptadala :– As there is 7 dalas.
Saptah :– Having seven leaves arranged in whorals.
Chakraparna :– Whoral arrangement looks like an umbrella.
Shuktiparna :– Shape of the leaf likes Oyester.
Gandhapuspa :– Flowers are having strong odour.
Sharadi :–As flower bearing time of plant is sharad rtu.
Gucchapuspa :– flowers occurs in clusters.
Madaganda :– The flowers have intense odour.
Shiroruk :– Smell of the flower causes headache.
Vishala :– The bark is vey thick.
Sharada :– Signifies the name of goddess of learning, also plant bears flowers at sharad rtu.
Visalatwak :– The bark is very thick.
English :- Dita ,Devil’s Tree.
Hindi :- Satouna , Shaithan , Chithavan , Chativan , Sativan.
Telugu :- Edakulla ponna , Edakuliriti.
Bengali :- Chatim
Punjabi :- Satouna
Marathi :- Satvina
Kannada :- Maddale ,Elelaga ,Haalemma
Tamil :- Palai , Ezhilam palai
Malayalam :- Pala , Daiva phala , Ezhilam pala.
Gujarat :- Satavana10.
Another species named Alstonia Macrosperma is there, which is used as a substitute for Alstonia Scholaris1.
GANA – GROUP
Charaka Samhitha :- Thikthaskanda , Kashayaskanda , Kushtagna , Udardaprashamana , Shirovirechana.
Susrutha Samhitha :- Aragvadhi , Adhobhagahara , Lakshadi.
Vagbhatta :- Aragvadhi1.
According to ayurveda :- Aragvadhi , Kushtagna , Thikthaskanda , Udardaprashamana11.
The total alkaloid content of Indian Bark is reported to be 0.16-0.27% and 0.8-0.10% of the Hydroxide of chief alkaloid Echitamine,but higher values have been reported (0.5%) of Echitamine in bark from Mysore1.
Among Non-alkaloidal constituents two isomeric actones were isolated .Bark is also rich in Sterols. Bark also contains Echicerine ,Echitine ,Echiretive and other constituents.
Latex is found to contain 2.8-7.9% Caoutchouc.The coagulum contains Caoutchouc. 12.9-26.5 and resins 69.0-78.7%.
The presence of blood sugar reducing principle in bark and acids like Sistesterol,Butylene and Arsolic acid etc also has been reported10.
PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATHA
Rasa: – Thiktha , Kashaya.
Guna :– Laghu , Snigdha.
Virya :– Ushna.
Vipaka :– Katu.
Trodoshahara , Dipana , Hrdya14 .
10.Dipana – Anulomana-Sara
11.Yakrdhalya , Krimighna
12Hrdya , Pramehaghna
Hrdroga , Vishamajwara , Kandu , Kushta , Krimi ,Amavatha , Svasa , Gulma, Sula , Rakta Vikara , Kasa , Sutiroga , Agnivardhaka – Balya – Stanyajanana , Agni mandhya , Pravahika , Vrna , Dipana – Anulomana-Sara , Yakrdhourbalya , Krimighna , Hrdya , Prameha , Katupoustika , Kaphagna , Krimiroga , Udarda , Jirnajwara , Jwarajanya dhourbalya , Danta krimi1.
- Its Decoction is used in Jwara , Shula and Gulma.
- Its Powder should be given with Vidanga powder in Krimi Rogas.
- Its Decoction is useful in Visamajwara and in case of Svasa2.
- Krimi Danta :- Dental caries should be filled with latex of Saptaparna and Arkaksira(A.H.U22/20)
- Svasa :- Juice of Saptaparna flowers is mixed with pippali and taken with honey (C.S.CI.17/114).
- Sandrameha :- Saptaparna decoction is useful ( S.S.CI 11/9)1.
The drug is anti-pyretic , anti – septic ,carminative , cardiotonic and vermifuge. It is used in abdominal pain ,. Fever , resoiratory disease , and in skin diseases.The drug is very much used in traditional medicine against Malarial fever.
The bark is very effective drug internally used in Visamajwara as an Anti – malarial herbal agent without any side-effects.Bark is also very useful in debility caused by fever as a good bitter tonic. Bark in the form of powder , decoction ,extract,others (as single drug and an ingredient of compound formulation)is commonly prescribed in malarial fever and allied ailing conditions10 ; for purification of breast milk decoction of Guduchi and Saptaparn bark mixed with Shunti should be given14.
Saptaparna bark is taken in perpural stage to Prasoota mothers ; it is also a Galactogogue besides other beneficial actions for allaying certain disorders of this stage.
The bark is taken in Rakta vikara and Hrdroga , It is given in Cough , Asthma , Prameha , Skin Disorders , Dermatitis , Kushta , Udarda , Worms , Liver Dysfunction ,Abdominal colic , Dyspepsia , Gulma and Dysentery.
Externally the bark is applied on Chronic Ulcers and Kushta ; it is wound healing.
Internal Uses :-
ANNA and PURISHAVAHA
Agni Deepana :- Due to Thiktharasa , Katuvipaka , Usnavirya.
Vatanulomana :- Being Snigdha and Ushna.
Can also be used in Agnimandya ,Shula , Gulma , Liver Debility as it is Liver stimulant due to presence of Kashaya rasa.
Krimighna :- Since thiktharasa eliminates Kapha Decoction with honey can be used in Chardi(Kaphaja).
Its Decoction should be given with honey and pippali powder in Kapha – Pittaja Svasa and Hikka . It liquefies Kapha and excretes Kapha and Pitha.
Can be used in Hrdrogas , Thiktharasa stimulates Agni and acts as Rasayana of Rasadhathu.
Its decoction or Sidha Ghritha can be used in Kushta to absord Kledha10.
- 2ml latex if boiled in sufficient quantity of water and if in taken in the morning will act as a Purgative.
- For Chronic Headache, Running Nose, Expectorant etc the flower of Saptaparna is grinded and boiled in water, this water is filtered and Nasya is done.
- Saptaparna latex is used for curing Vrna15.
- Stem Bark
Decoction :- 5-100ml (Thwak Kwatha)
- Saptacchadi Tailam – Mukha Roga
- Saptacchadi Kwatha – Mukha Roga
- TriphalaGritha – Sarvakshi Roga,Cataract,ComputerEye Syndrome.
- Saptaparna Satvati Vati10.
- Saptaparn Ghana Vati11.
- Picrinine showed CNS depressant activity (Planta med.1976,30,86)
- Strichtamine showed Monamine Oxidase Inhibitory activity both in vivo mice and in vitro in rat bairn Mitochondria. It lso showed Anti-depressant activity(Ind .jExpbiol.1979,17,598).
- Alcoholic extract of bark showed Anti – Microbial activity against Salm . Partyphi-B and Aspergillus niger (Comp .Physiol .Ecol.1989,14,1).
- The alcoholic extract of stem bark showed significant anti – cancer activity in HS , Human Sarcoma in the embryonated egg (Dhareta;,1968) 1.
- This plant has shown Anti – Coagulant property by increasing the coagulation time , prothrombine time and fibrinolytic activity11.