Sithaphala(Annona squamosa)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

It is a small tree possessing green coloured flowers. It is mainly cultivated for the commercial value of the fruits. It is not described in the classical Ayurvedic literature; probably it is brought from West Indies (Cuba, Jamaica etc). Sitaphala is mentioned in the Nighantu’s of 19th Century under the name of “Gandagatra”. Hence it is clear that AnnusSanamosa is brought to Indis by Europeans in the recent times only.

It includes Cherimoys or AnnonaCherimols( and paw paworAsminatribola.

Other varieties are Green which is commonly seen yellow and last one is

red.This species was probably introduced because it produce sweet fruit with resembles to commercial custard apple. Commonly grow Queen land. The anecdote regarding to origin if the common Queens land custard Apple placed its origin the site of cloudsland Ballroom in Brisbane. It was believed to be of hybrid origin and was subsequently propagated by Grafting.

 

SYNONYMS

 

  • Krishna beeja :- Black seed
  • Parushaphala :- Fruit is rough in nature.

 

KINDS AND VARIETIES

 

Another species Annona Linn Is known as Ramphal, Nona and Laxamanphal(Bullocks heart). Both species of Annons differ morphologically. Flowers suprs axillary, solitary, 2cm across and berry heart – shaped in Annonamuricata Linn, while flowers, axillary solitary or faxiculed under 1cm across and berryglobose in Annons squamous Linn.

Annona reticulates Linn small deciduous trees. Leaves 10 – 20cm acuminate, glabrous, flowers 2-3 together. Innermost tipules narrow – oblong. Fruits ancolate, heart shaped, tree becomes leafless when fruit mature.

Main destination of characterestily is of fruits of two species as fruits are late and heart shaped in Annona reticulate when fruits tubercled and globose in Annona Squamosa.

 

BOTANICAL SOURCE

 

B.N:- Annona squamosa

Family name: -Annonaceae

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

  • English :- Custard apple
  • Hindi :- Sitaphal, Sharith
  • Kannada:- Sitaphala
  • Malayalam:- Aathachakka, Sitaphalam
  • Sanskrit :- Subada, Suda, Sitaphala, Janakiphala
  • Tamil:- Atta, Sitaphalam
  • Telugu:- Gandugatramu, Sitapandu

RASAPANCHAKA

 

  • Rasa :- Madhura
  • Guna :- Snigda, Lagu
  • Veerya :- Sheeta
  • Vipaka :- Madhura
  • Doshapakva :- Vatapitta

Srothogamitva

Dosa

  • Vatagna, Pittagna, Kaphahara

Dhatu

  • Sukra, Mamsa, Meda, Rakta

Mala

  • Laxative, eradicates lice

Organ

  • Heart

KARMA

  • Krimigna
  • Garbasaya
  • Sitajwara
  • Rechana
  • Hridya
  • Balya
  • Vrishya
  • Dahaprashamana
  • Anulomana
  • Soola
  • Vishgna
  • Swasaha
  • Raktapittasamaka
  • Mootrala
  • Bramana

 

 

USES

 

  • Krimigna
  • Sitajwara
  • Koshtabatala
  • Vidvadi
  • Hridroga
  • Dourbalya
  • Raktapitta
  • Hridya

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

The seeds are yield oil and resins, the latter appear to be the acrid principle. The bark has been examined by padlar and warden, who found indicates of an alkaloids principles but failed isolated it in a purestate. They also found an acid resin insoluble in either and 2 resins soluble in either as well as white crystalline principle soluble in alcoholic and ether, but insoluble in water or dilute acid and a viscid yellow neutral resin like body. The fruit pulp contains moisture 73.2, glucose 14.5, Sacchrose 1.7 and proteins 18 percent.

 

 

PARTS USED

Fruit, Seed, Leaves and Root.

DOSAGE

Choorna: – 1-3gm

Kwacha: – 50-1000ml

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

The unripe fruit, seed, leaf and root are considered medicinal and are used for destroying insects. The seeds are abortificant. The root is a drastic purgative. The fruit has a pleasant flavour. It can be mrdu in to drinks and fermented liquor. The fruit is considered to be rich in Vit c.

The fruit of Ramphol or Nona, known as Bullocks Heart(Annona Reticulates Linn) is edible and white pulp has the consistency of fallow and is somewhat inspired (moisture 72.3, glucose 12.5 and proteins 2%). The unripe fruit is considered antihelminthic, the bark a powerful astringent and the leaves andseeds; insecticidal .Bark has 0.03% of an alkaloid anonaine

Fruit sweet, tasty good tonic, enriches the blood, increasesmuscular strength,wooling, lessens burning sensation, Sedative to heart, lessens tendency to bilwusness, relieves vomiting root catheric, fruit sweet, flavours, enriches the blood, increases stimulant, expectorant. Seeds difficult to digest, cause fever and furnunclosisabortifaciem: – produce tears in the eye good to destroy lice in hair used in Yunani. The root is considered asa diuretic purgative and is administered as a drastic purgative and is administered in acute Dysentery. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinal diseases. The astringent bark is used as an anti-diarrhoeic use in ismbodis. In a West Indies and in Central and South Ameries the roof is used as a diuretic cathartic .The seeds are a powerful irritant of conjunctiva.

Seeds contain an acrid principle, fatal to insects and the dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with gram flour, is used to destroy Vermin.

Bark and leaves conatinannonin, an alkaloid in tropical America, a decoction of the leaves is used as a cold remedy and to clarify urine. A dark decoction is used to stop diarrhoea, while the root is used in the treatment of dysentery.

 

FOLKLORE REMEDY

 

  • The Folk medicine has been used this plant as an Organic Solvent.
  • Extract of Custard Apple seeds and leaves against headlice has been reported.
  • From the seed extract prepared as a cream.
  • From the seed shampoo is prepared against the head lice
  • Seed extract in the regulation of hyper thyroidism and lipid – peroxidation in mice possible involvement of quercetin.

 

PROPERTIES AND USES

 

The bark is a powerful astringent and as tonic is much used in medicine. The ripe fruit externally applied to malignant tumours to hasten Suppuration. The seeds, leaves and unripe fruit contain an acid principle fatal to Vermin and Insects. The leaves made into paste without adding water are applied to unhealthy ulcers. Leaves are anti- helminthic. Seeds applied to uteri cause abortion. The leaves are applied for extraction of guines – worm. The seeds yield an oil and resin. The latter is an acrid principle. The seeds are detergent and therefore their powder mixed with gram is a good hair wash. The root is a violent purgative.

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

 

Astringent, tonic, anti-helminthic, purgative and diuretic. Ether extract of the seed was tonic to muscanebulo and Triboloium mcastaneum adults. An insoluble resin was formed when petroleum ether was added to the ether extract and the resin was found to be six times more toxic as conduct poison against musca nebulo. The seeds were found to have little oxytoxic activity, although some uterotonic activity was observed in isolated tissue experiments. The alcoholic extract of the aerial part of Anona squamosa was tested to have anticsneer activity against Human epidermal carcinoma of the naso pharynx in tissue culture.

 

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here