Varuna

[Crataeva nurvala Buch.Ham]

CAPPARIDACEAE FAMILY

CLASSICAL CATAGORISATION

 

  • Susruta
  • Varunadi
  • Vatasmari nasaka
  • Tikta varga
  • Vata samshamana
  • Charaka—-Tikta skandha
  • Vagbhata —- varunadi
  • Vrinda madhava— Ashmarigha
  • Sodala Nighandu —- Amradi varga
  • Kaiyadeva Nighandu—- Aushadhi varga
  • Bhava prakasha Nighandu —- Vatadi varga
  • Dhanvantari Nighandu —- Amradi panchama sarga
  • Sad rasa Nighandu / Abhidhana ratnamala—-Kashaya dravya

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

  • English   3 leaved caper
  • Malayalum Niravila
  • Kannada Neravele
  • Hindi Varna, Baruna
  • Tamil Mavilingam
  • Telugu Magalingam
  • Marathi   varun
  • oriya Baryno

 

 

 

 

SYNONYMS

 

  • Varuna           :That which useful in treatment of Gulma.
  • Tiktasaka           : That’s stem are tikta in taste.
  • Kumaraka           : The leaflets – glabrous.
  • Setuvrksha           : Having malabhedanadi guna.
  • Bilva patra         : Like bilva it has three leaflets.
  • Bahupushpa      : During Vasanth rtu all the branches of plant

will be covered by flower / full of flowers.

  • Bhramara priya : Attract Bhramaras (honey bee).
  • Vrtha Phala           :Fruit are round.
  • Ashmarighna : Useful in Asmari.
  • Tikthasara           :Sara is tikta in taste.

 

 

 

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

  • Stem Bark:Tannin & Saponoin

(-)- epiafzelechin, (-)- epiafzelechin 5-   O-β-D glucoside,(-) catechin,lupeol, diosgenin,friedelin, betulenic acid, ceryl alcohol,glucocapparin,β-sitosterol; varunol, the alkaloids,cadabicine,   , diacetate, & cadabicine  Methyl ether also isolated.

  • LEAF:L-stachydrine, rutin, quercetin &isoquercetin.
  • FRUIT:Ceryl alcohol,cetyl alcohol, tricontanol, tricontane, glucocapparin &β-sitosterol.
  • ROOT BARK :βsitosterol, lupeol,varunol, β-sitosterol acetate, β-taraxasterol,β-epilupeol,lupenone, rutin & quercetin (anti-inflammatary substances).

 

PROPERTIES

 

Rasa                    :Tikta,kashaya,madhura

Guna                   :Laghu,Ruksha

Virya                   :Ushna virya

Vipaka                :Katu

Prabhava           :Ashmari bhedhana

KARMA

 

  • Ashmari bhedhana
  • Dheepana
  • Anulomana
  • Krimaghna
  • Bhedhana
  • Moothrala
  • Gulmaghna
  • Raktha shodhaka
  • Raktha uttejaka
  • Jwaragana
  • Yakrt uttejaka
  • Krimighna
  • Vata raktha hara

 

ROGAGNATHA/PRAYOGA

  • In vidhrathi,Ganda mala
  • asmari,mootra krachra & moothraghadha
  • Vrna sodha
  • Agnimandya
  • Soola
  • Yakrt vikara
  • Krmi
  • Jwara
  • Bhasthi soola
  • In Asthama & bronchitis
  • Worms
  • Raktha dosa, vyanga – varnavikara
  • Medoroga
  • Arsas
  • Dourbalya

 

AMAYIKA PRAYOGA (THERAPEUTIC USES)

 

  1. Varuna pushpa ( varuna’s flower) useful in Amavata & considered as Grahi & pittarechaka.
  2. In vidradhi& ganda mala, a kvatha is prepared with the bark & given with madhu. Externally applied on ganda mala as paste.
  3. In Asmari a kvatha is Prepared with mulatwak, the curna of bark is added to& given (V.M).
  4. In mutrakrucchra the bark kvatha is useful.
  5. In vyanga , lepana of varuna twak with goat’s milk applied externally. (Chakradhatta)
  6. In asmari, prameha, bastisula, mutrakrucchra & other mutradiseases, along with apamarga, punarnava, yaraksara,goksura & yastimadhu given.
  7. In vedanayuktha vata vikara’s : Varuna mula twak churna with shingru mula twak churna & dhanyamla applied externally (B.P).
  8. In asras : varuna pathra kvatha avaghaha sweda given (C.C).
  9. Kikkisa – First the suprapubic area is rubbed with dried cow – dung & then anionted with the paste of varuna leaves ( R.M).

 

 

  1. In Rheumatism – leaf juice in doses of ½ to 3 tolas is given, mixed with coconut milk & ghee.
  2. Calculus – Root & bark used in the form of embocation which is prepared by boiling them in oil.
  3. Bark decoction with addition of treacle : decoction prepared by bruising & boiling 4 ounces of bark in 1 pints of water till reduced to 1 pint & strained & cooled which is useful in urinary complaints such as kidney, bladder stones. Fever, to relieve vomiting.
  4. Bark used in snake bite.
  5. Aromatic & bitter tonic prepared by infusion of leaves.
  6. In ascites, urinary disorders, calculus affection- compound decoction containing its root bark,leaves,small calrrops, ginger, carbonate of potash, honey & water.
  7. Swelling & burning sensation in feet – paste of leaves applied to soles of feet.
  8. For scrofulous Enlargements of glands under lower jaw – a decoction of bark prescribed (sarangadhara).
  9. Internal / deep seated suppurative inflammation – A decoction of bark & punarnava in the proption of 5 to 2 parts respectively.

 

 

PARTS USED ( UPAYUKTHA ANGA)

  • Moola Twak                             Pushpa                Pathra

 

  1. Root & Root bark
  • Roots are long, cylindrical, woody & 0.5 to 8.0 mm in diameter.
  • Root bark is 1.0 mm to 4.0 mm thick. Outer surface of root & root bark is yellowish brown, longitudinally wrinkled, rough due to presence of lenticels. Inner surface is smooth, yellow,longitudinally striated, fracture is tough.
  1. STEM

Mature bark is 6-15 cm long & 3-10cm wide with thickness varying from 5 to 12mm. The thinner bark pieces are chanelled, but the thicker ones are flat & slightly curved. The outer surface is ash coloured & rough due to presence of numerous small & found lenticels & transverse wrinkles. Inner surface is smooth & whitish brown to buff coloured.

  1. LEAVES

Leaves are alternate, petiolate, exstipulate with fairy large digitately trifoliate leaflets, which are thin texture, green, entire, ovate to lanceolate, glabrous, acute, petioles are long . Lateral leaflets areoblique.

 

 

DOSAGE

 

Choorna                       1-2 gm

Kvatha                         50-100ml.

 

 

FOLK LORIC REMEDIES

 

  1. Fresh leaves of crataeva bruised well with a little vinegar, lime juice or lime water or hot water, & applied to the skin as poultice/paste act as a vesicant.
  2. Fresh leaves & roots mixed with coconut juice & ghee are used as food to reduce corpulence.
  3. Leaf smoked in caries of the bones of the nose, & the smoke is exhaled through the nose.
  4. A paste of the leaves applied to soles of the feet to relieve swelling & burning sensation.
  5. A decoction of the bark of the tree is used in scrofulous enlargement of glands under the lower jaw.
  6. A decoction of the bark is also used for internal/deep seated suppurative inflammation.

 

YOGA’S (FORMULATIONS)

 

  • Varundya tila
  • Varunadya ghrta
  • Varunadi kwatha
  • Varuna kshara yoga
  • Kanjanara guggulu
  • Manjishtadhyrishta
  • Varunadhi kvatha choorna

 

RESEARCH  STUDIES

 

  • At the central unit of govt.Research dept. of Ayurveda Hyderabad varuna kvatha is used as stomatch wash through Ryelie’s tube & is found to very effective in case of peptic ulcer.
  • Some of the fractions of crataeva nurvala showed promising anti- inflammatory & anti – arthritic activities. It has been found to produce prolonged hypotension of gradual onset (CCRIMH annual report 1972-73).

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHARMACOLOGY

 

  • The water extract of crataeva bark plays nicotinic actions on guinea pig ileum & dog tracheal muscle in vitro.
  • The effect of this water extrct on the bladder contractility of dogs has studied.
  • The alcohol ether extract of bark has anti – inflammatory activity comparable to that of corticosteroids.
  • Acute inflammations induced by histamine & carrageenin & delayed (chronic) inflammation ( in formaldehyde induced arthiritis) are both inhibited.
  • The water extract of leaves has anti-bacterial activity against shigella & salmonella.

 

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